Asterisk 12 now uses Alembic to help manage Asterisk Realtime Database schemas. This includes creation of SQL scripts for a variety of database vendors, but also much more. Alembic is a full database migration tool, with support for upgrading the schemas of existing databases, versioning of schemas, creation of new tables and databases, and a whole lot more. This page covers basic configuration of the Alembic configuration file for usage with Asterisk Realtime as well as basic usage of Alembic. While a full description of Alembic is beyond the scope of this page, the information on this page should help an Asterisk administrator create or upgrade an Asterisk installation.
Before you Begin
This tutorial assumes you already have some experience in setting up Realtime configuration with Asterisk for other modules. This page will not describe how to set up backend database connectors, and is written under the assumption that you will be using ODBC to connect to your database since the ODBC adaptor is capable of connecting to most commonly used database servers. For more information on configuring and setting up Asterisk Realtime, see Asterisk Realtime Database configuration.
If you don't already have Alembic installed, perform the following:
$ pip install alembic
And that's it!
Building the Database Tables
Alembic scripts were added to Asterisk in Asterisk 12, and will allow you to automatically populate your database with tables for most of the commonly used configuration options. The scripts are located in the Asterisk contrib/ast-db-manage folder:
$ cd contrib/ast-db-manage
For the rest of this tutorial, we will assume that operations will be taken in the context of that directory.
Within this directory, you will find a configuration sample file,
config.ini.sample, which will need to be edited to connect to your database of choice. Open this file in your text editor of choice and then save a copy of this sample file as
config.ini - this will serve as the configuration file you actually use with Alembic.
There are two different parameters in
config.ini that require review:
script_location. The first specifies the database to upgrade; the second which upgrades to perform.
sqlalchemy.urlto the URL for your database. An example is shown below for a MySQL database:
sqlalchemy.url = mysql://root:[email protected]/asterisk
This would connect to a MySQL database as user
password. The database is
asterisk, located on
localhost. Different databases will require different URL schemas; however, they should in general follow the format outlined above. Alembic supports many different database technologies, including
For more information, see the Alembic documentation on SQLAlchemy URLs: http://docs.sqlalchemy.org/en/rel_0_8/core/engines.html#database-urls
script_locationto the schema to update. Asterisk currently supports two sets of schemas:
config- the set of schemas for Asterisk Realtime databases
voicemail- the schema for ODBC VoiceMail
Executing the database upgrade
Your config.ini should be ready for use at this point, so close your text editor and return to the terminal. Then run:
$ alembic -c config.ini upgrade head
At this point, if you configured your config.ini to connect to the database properly, your tables should be ready.
Troubleshooting the upgrade
Symptom: Running 'alembic -c config.ini upgrade head' fails with a traceback:
Traceback (most recent call last): File "/usr/local/bin/alembic", line 9, in <module> load_entry_point('alembic==0.7.5.post2', 'console_scripts', 'alembic')() <snip> File "/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/sqlalchemy/dialects/mysql/mysqldb.py", line 92, in dbapi return __import__('MySQLdb') ImportError: No module named MySQLdb
Solution: You probably need the Python interface to MySQL installed.
For example, with Ubuntu, install the following package and then re-run your Alembic upgrade.
# apt-get install python-mysqldb
apt-get install python3-pymysql
is also needed