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Comment: Added git log examples


This page documents:

  • Asterisk's various Git repositories, and their intended purposes.
  • Policies for using Git and Gerrit with Asterisk.
  • Useful commands.

Git Repositories


Asterisk uses Gerrit as its primary repository and for for code review. Users who are looking to clone or contribute patches back to Asterisk should work the repositories on Gerrit. Please see the Gerrit Usage documentation for more information.


The repositories on mirror the repositories on Gerrit, and provide source tree browsing.


The repositories on GitHub mirror the repositories on Gerrit, also provide source tree browsing, and exist because of GitHub's popularity.

Pull requests on GitHub WILL be ignored.

titleOn This Page

Table of Contents


  • All branches that require the change should have the change cherry-picked to that branch, and submitted for review. See Software Configuration Management Policies for which patch types are appropriate for what branches. See Gerrit Usage for instructions on cherry-picking.
  • The same Gerrit Change Id must be present in all cherry-picked commits.
  • The same topic (ASTERISK issue) must be used in all reviews.
  • Test Suite test reviews should use the same topic (ASTERISK issue) as the code change reviews.

Useful Commands and Tips

  • git clean: When switching between major release branches there are often whole directories that are in one branch but not another.  'git clean -fd' will clean out the working directory.  Just make sure any files you want to keep are either checked in or ignored.
  • If you use an IDE or other tools that need configuration files in the working directory but their names don't match an entry in .gitignore, you can add them to git/info/exclude to ignore them locally without updating the checked-in .gitignore.
  • git log:  This is one of the more useful tools there is.  Here are some examples:Show the commit difference between 13.8 and 13.9

    • Show the difference between the 13.8 and 13.9 branches:

      Code Block
      $ git log --graph --decorate --no-merges -E --grep="^(realtime: Add database scripts for|ChangeLog:|Release summaries:|[.])" \
      $  --invert-grep --pretty=format:'%Cred %h %C(yellow) %d %Creset %<(60,trunc) %s %Cgreen(%cr)' 13.8..13.9
      *  d27ee3b     res_sorcery_astdb: Fix creation of retrieved objects.        (11 days ago)
      *  15c427c     Use doubles instead of floats for conversions when compari.. (11 days ago)
      *  e702b9f     pjproject_bundled:  Disable PJSIP_UNESCAPE_IN_PLACE          (3 weeks ago)
      *  b470aab     func_odbc: Check connection status before executing queries. (3 weeks ago)

       Both are branches so you'll see the diff between their current states with the merge and housekeeping commits excluded.

    • That's a lot to type so add an alias:

      Code Block
      $ git config --global --add alias.cdiff "log --graph --decorate --no-merges \
         -E --grep='^(realtime: Add database scripts for|ChangeLog:|Release summaries:|[.])' \
         --invert-grep --pretty=format:'%Cred %h %C(yellow) %d %Creset %<(60,trunc) %s %Cgreen(%cr)'"
    • Show the commits added to 13.9 after up to 13.9.1

      Code Block
      $ git cdiff 13.9..13.9.1

       Wait, that didn't show anything!  That's because 13.9.1 is a tag on 13.9 and nothing's been added to 13.9 since then so they're equal. What you probably want is:

      Code Block
      $ git cdiff 13.9.0..13.9.1
      *  d27ee3b     res_sorcery_astdb: Fix creation of retrieved objects.        (11 days ago)
      *  15c427c     Use doubles instead of floats for conversions when compari.. (11 days ago)


    • Now things get a little complicated. Let's say 13.8 is closed but certified/13.8 is still open. So, what's in certified/13.8 but not 13.8? You might be tempted to use the '..' operator between the 2 branches as before but because '..' is a range operator it doesn't work well when the 2 branches overlap, especially when we're cherry-picking; you'll wind up showing commits that are in both branches. Instead, you need to use the '...' operator and the --cherry-pick flag.

      Code Block
      $ git cdiff --cherry-pick --right-only 13.8...certified/13.8
      *  b9a28cc     udptl:  Don't eat sequence numbers until OK is received      (5 days ago)
      | *  f85c77a     chan_sip:  Prevent extra Session-Expires headers from bein.. (6 days ago)
      *  8bf050b     config_transport:  Tell pjproject to allow all SSL/TLS pro.. (10 days ago)
      *  4fc2c98     res_pjsip_authenticator_digest: Don't use source port in n.. (2 weeks ago)
      *  4e7791d     file: Ensure nativeformats remains valid for lifetime of u.. (3 weeks ago)
      *  c4426f1     res_pjsip: disable multi domain to improve realtime perfor.. (3 weeks ago)

    • Finally, things get even more complicated when trying to compare 13 and master.  Because of the cherry-picking and the fact that these 2 branches started in subversion, there is no single git command that will show the differences reliably. The only way to do this is to pick a point in time as a starting reference, list the log from both branches, sort them, then compare them.  It would be nice if git could do the matching on the gerrit change id but it can't so we're left with mathcing on subject

      Code Block
      $ git log --date=short --pretty=format:"master %h %cd %s" --since='2015/04/11' --no-merges master > /tmp/master
      $ git log --date=short --pretty=format:"13     %h %cd %s" --since='2015/04/11' --no-merges 13 > /tmp/13
      $ sort -k4 /tmp/13 /tmp/master | uniq -u --skip-fields=3
      master 64b2046 2016-01-06 Add sipp-sendfax.xml and to contrib/scripts.
      master 2415a14 2015-05-15 Add X.509 subject alternative name support to TLS certificate verification.
      master 57386dc 2015-05-12 Allow command-line options to override asterisk.conf.
      master 62e9506 2015-04-13 AMI: Fix improper handling of lines that are exactly 1025 bytes long.
      13     1d3d20d 2015-12-21 app_amd: Correct documentation to reflect functionality
      master ca39416 2015-12-21 app_amd: Correct maximum_number_of_words functionality & documentation
      master 8c14b91 2015-11-19 app_bridgeaddchan: ability to barge into existing call

      April 11 2015 was the migration from subversion to git.  Also note that the 2 app_amd commits are probably the same but we have no way to tell.